- Arthroscopic calcium oxide removal
- Arthroscopic rotator cuff
- Arthroscopic stabilization for shoulder dislocations
- Open surgery for large tendon reconstruction
- Artificial shoulder joint
In case of degenerative shoulder disorders, conservative treatment such as infiltrations, physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise is paramount. Only in about 25 percent of the cases this step therapy fails and a surgical treatment (usually surgical arthroscopy) is then performed. Younger patients with complaints of recurrent shoulder dislocation or rotator cuff tears, or biceps tendon often do not respond well to conservative treatments, and therefore require surgery.
The bones of the shoulder from the front.
Brief Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint
The bony parts of the shoulder are the scapula, the clavicle and the humerus.
The humeral head is held in the apparently too small socket by a meniscus-like ring (glenoid labrum), and strong bands, which are embedded in the joint capsule.
If one of these structures is disrupted, then the humeral head can slip out - see shoulder dislocation.
The muscles and tendons are responsible for the movements of the arm, two layers stretching from the scapula and clavicle (and chest) to the upper arm.
The top layer is the large deltoid, the lower layer consists of three muscles (front: subscapularis, top: Supraspinatus, rear: infraspinatus) and is often prone to defects and cracks.
The lower layer of muscles (rotator cuff) is weaker than the large deltoid muscle, however it is necessary for a "pre-load", without which the deltoids can not work.
In case of a major tear of the rotator cuff, the arm can not be lifted. The shoulder umbrella, under which the soft tissue entrapment (impingement syndrome) can occur, consists of acromion, coracoid process and the band stretched between them (the coracoacromial ligament).
Important muscles and ligaments of the shoulder from the front, intersecting plane for pictures